WHO IS A MUSAFIR?
- The person who sets out with the intention of eventually travelling approx. 77 km is regarded as a musafir in the Shari`ah. A person will not become a musafir until he firmly intends to travel 77 km from the place he is in.
- The moment he comes out of the boundaries of his town or city he becomes a musafir. Within the boundaries of his town or city, he will not be a musafir.
- If the airport is within the boundaries of the city (in the sense that the buildings of the city are linked to it without a considerable break in between) it will fall under the rule of the city and the person will not be considered a musafir when he reaches it. If it is outside the boundaries, then upon reaching it, the person will be regarded as a musafir.
THE (QASR) SALAH OF A MUSAFIR
- When a person qualifies as a musafir according to the Shari`ah he is required to offer two rak`ahs for Zuhr, `Asr and `Isha’ Salah. The other Salahs remain as normal.
- More than two rak`ahs should not be offered for Zuhr, `Asr and `Isha’ Salah. If a person mistakenly offered four raka`at for these Salahs, and he had sat down for Tashahhud (al-Tahiyyat) in the second rak`ah, then the first two rak`ahs will be regarded as Fard and the other two rak`ahs as nafl. In this case he will have to make sajdah al-sahw. If he did not make sajdah al-sahw then he must repeat the Salah if its time still remains. If he did not sit in the second rak`ah then all four raka`at will become nafl and he will have to repeat his Fard Salah.
BECOMING A MUQIM (RESIDENT)
- A person will remain a musafir and will continue offering two rak`ahs for the four-raka`at Salahs until he makes the definite intention of staying at a place for fifteen days or more.
- The place where he makes this intention is known as his Watan al-Iqamah. He must offer four raka`at Salah here.
- If he makes the intention of staying for 15 days whilst in Salah then he must offer this very Salah as a muqim i.e. 4 raka`at.
OTHER SALAH ON A JOURNEY
- Sunnah Salah should not be unduly missed during the journey. However if the musafir is in a hurry then, apart from the Sunnah of Fajr, it will be permissible for him to omit the other Sunnah Salahs. If he is not in a hurry nor does he fear his companions leaving him behind then he should offer all the Sunnah Salahs.
- There is no reduction in the number of raka`at of Sunnah Salah.
- Sunnah and Nafl Salah can be offered whilst seated in a moving vehicle if it is outside the town. (The one praying sunnah and nafl salah does not have to turn towards the qibla. This is not the case for the obligatory and mandatory prayers. One must face the qibla when commencing the obligatory and mandatory prayers and remain facing the qibla until the prayers end.)
- Witr Salah is wajib. Hence it must be offered whilst on a journey as well. If it is missed then qada’ must be made.
- Qada’ of Salahs missed whilst on a journey will be two rak`ahs for Zuhr, `Asr and`Isha. This applies even when the qada’ is being made at home or as a muqim in any other place.
- If any Salah, such as Zuhr, is missed before embarking on a journey then qada’ of it whilst on the journey must be made in full i.e. four raka`at.
The principle in laws 5 and 6 above is that the condition of a person, whether musafir or muqim, is considered in the final moments of that Salah. Accordingly the status of the Qada’ Salah (i.e. whether it is two or four raka`at) will be determined.
THE HOMETOWN (AL-WATAN AL-ASLI)
A person’s hometown is the place where he resides with his family and belongings without having a definite intention of relocating.
- Immediately upon entering his hometown the musafir will become a muqim whether he intends staying for fifteen days or not.
- This also applies when a musafir, during the course of his journey, passes through his hometown i.e. he will immediately become a muqim. If he merely bypasses his hometown but doesn’t enter its boundaries then he will remain amusafir.
- If a person moves to another town and settles there permanently then this second town becomes his hometown and the first town is no longer his hometown.
RULES RELATING TO WOMEN
- It is a major sin for a woman to travel 77 kilometres or more without her husband or a post-pubescent male mahram.
- This law also applies to women travelling for Hajj or`Umrah. A woman must have her husband or a mahram accompanying her in these journeys as well.
- It is also not permissible for a woman to travel with a mahram who does not fear Allah Ta`ala and does not abide by the laws of Shari`ah.
- The Wali (male person accompanying the woman) must be able to fulfill the role of a competent Wali in guarding the chastity and honour of the woman.
RULES RELATING TO FARD SALAH ON AN AIRCRAFT, TRAIN, SHIP, etc.
- Fard Salah (obligatory prayers) has to be offered while standing in a moving ship, train or aircraft.
- If a person feels dizzy by offering Salah standing or fears that he will fall then he is allowed to sit and offer Salah.
- The one prayingmust face the Qiblah whilst offering Fard Salah (obligatory prayers) in a moving vehicle.
- If the vehicle turns and the direction of the Qiblah changes then he will also have to turn in his Fard Salah (obligatory prayers) towards the Qiblah.
- If a person is offering Salah and the vehicle, which has his belongings or family, is about to leave then it will be permissible for him to break his Salah. The Salah must then be offered later.
SALAH WITH JAMA`AH (in a group)
- As far as possible Salah should be offered in jama`ah whilst on a journey.
- A muqim (i.e. a resident or non-musafir) can follow an imam who is a musafir whether it is an ada’ Salah (i.e. a Salah in its time) or a qada’ Salah.
- In the above case, when the musafir imam completes his Salah of 2 rak`ahs and makes salam, the muqim follower (muqtadi) should stand up without making salam and complete his Salah. He must not recite any Qira’ah in the 2 rak`ahs he is completing. He should merely remain silent for the duration of Surah al-Fatihah.
- When the musafir imam makes salam, it is preferable (mustahab) for him to inform his followers that he is a musafir. It is preferable that he also informs them before commencing the Salah.
- A musafir (traveler) can also follow an imam who is a muqim (resident) as long as it is within the time of that Salah. The traveler will offer four rak`ahs with the resident imam.
FASTING FOR A MUSAFIR
- A musafir is permitted to abstain from the fast of Ramadan although it is meritorious for him to fast if it isn’t difficult. The qada’ of the fasts missed will have to be made.
- If a musafir who was not fasting in Ramadan becomes a muqim, either by returning home or by intending to stay at a place for fifteen days, then he has to compulsorily abstain from eating etc. for the rest of the day. However he still has to make qada’ of that day.
- If he did not eat anything since suhur time (before Fajr enters) then he can make the intention of fasting if it’s before Al-Dahwah Al-Kubra (approximately an hour before zawal.) In this case the fast will be valid and no qada’ is necessary. After this time (i.e. al-dahwah al-kubra) he cannot make the intention to fast but he still has to abstain from eating for the remainder of the day and qada’ of that day is necessary.
- If a residentwho is fasting begins a journey after Fajr enters then he must complete that fast. He cannot break the fast even though he is now a traveler.
Edited From: http://islamqa.org/hanafi/qibla-hanafi/37158