If a woman’s menstruation ends before Fajr in Ramadan, but she hasn’t taken a ghusl yet, can she make the intention to fast and take a ghusl after Fajr?

Question: If a woman’s menstruation ends before Fajr in Ramadan, but she hasn’t taken a ghusl yet, can she make the intention to fast and take a ghusl after Fajr? Or does the ghusl have to be done before Fajr comes in?

Answer:

Bismi Llahir Rahmanir Rahim

Assalamu alaykum wa rahmatuLlahi wa barakatuhu

The answer is dependent upon whether she is ruled to be in a state of menstruation or free from menstruation when Fajr enters. The way to determine this will differ for a woman whose menstruation ends before the menstrual maximum and for a woman whose menstruation ends exactly at the menstrual maximum of ten complete days.

The most common situation is that her menstruation ends before 240 hours. If there is enough time to complete the ghusl and say the opening takbir of the prayer before Fajr enters (approximately 15 minutes in normal circumstances), then her fast is valid because she will be ruled as ritually pure from menstruation when Fajr enters.

This is the ruling for her fast even if she delays taking her ghusl until after Fajr enters. However, she is responsible for making up her Isha and Witr prayer, and she may be deemed sinful for the delay.

There are three other scenarios that may be applicable:

  • If her menstruation ends before 240 hours and there is not enough time to complete the ghusl and say the opening takbir of the prayer before Fajr enters, then her fast is not valid.
  • If her menstruation ends at 240 hours and there is at least a moment left before Fajr enters, then her fast is valid.
  • If her menstruation ends at 240 hours and there is not at least a moment left before Fajr enters, then her fast is not valid.

A detailed answer will be explained within the remainder of the article. Each situation involves rulings related to the ghusl time and the habit, which will impact the validity of her fasts.

Ghusl Time & The Habit

Whenever menstruation ends before the menstrual maximum, the time it takes to prepare for the ghusl and complete the obligatory elements of the ghusl is added to a woman’s menstrual habit. Thus, it is as if she is still within a state of menstruation until she is finished with her ghusl. In normal living conditions, the ghusl time can be estimated to be about fifteen minutes.

Whenever menstruation ends at the menstrual maximum, the time it takes to complete the ghusl is not added to a woman’s menstrual habit because there can be no increase of the maximum time. Thus, she is deemed free from menstruation at the menstrual maximum, even if she has not completed her ghusl.

Bleeding Ends BEFORE The Menstrual Maximum

Ending before the menstrual maximum means that her menstruation ends at any time before 240 hours is reached. The ghusl time is always added to the menstrual habit.

There are two possibilities:

Scenario 1: The menstruating woman hypothetically has enough time to complete the obligatory actions of the ghusl and say the opening takbir of the prayer before Fajr enters.

If this is the case, her fast will count for that day. This is the ruling even if she delays taking her ghusl until after Fajr enters. However, she is responsible for making up her Isha and Witr prayer, and she may be deemed sinful for the delay.

For example, Abida’s menstruation ends on day seven at 5:40 am in Ramadan. Fajr enters at 6 am. Abida hypothetically has enough time to complete the obligatory actions of the ghusl and say the opening takbir before Fajr enters. Thus, her fast is valid.

Scenario 2: The menstruating woman does not hypothetically have enough time to complete the obligatory actions of the ghusl and say the opening takbir of the prayer before Fajr enters.

If this is the case, her fast will not count for that day. Consequently, she must imitate a fasting person for that day due to the sacredness of the holy month and make up this fast after Ramadan is over in a time when she is able.

For example, Abida’s menstruation ends on day nine at 5:55 am in Ramadan. Fajr enters at 6 am. Abida does not have enough time to complete the obligatory actions of the ghusl and say the opening takbir before Fajr enters. Because the ghusl time is added to the menstrual habit, when Fajr enters, Abida is still in a state of menstruation. Thus, her fast is not valid. She takes a ghusl, imitates a fasting person for that day until Maghrib enters, and makes up this fast after Ramadan is over in a time when she is able.

Bleeding Ends Exactly AT The Menstrual Maximum

Ending exactly at the menstrual maximum means that her menstrual bleeding ends at 240 hours. It also includes a woman who reaches the menstrual maximum but continues to bleed. The ghusl time is never added to the menstrual habit.

There are two possibilities:

Scenario 1: The menstruating woman hypothetically has enough time to say the opening takbir of the prayer before Fajr enters. Practically speaking, this is the length of merely a moment.

If this is the case, her fast will count for that day, even if Fajr enters while she is taking a ghusl. She must also makeup the Isha and Witr prayer before praying her Fajr prayer – although she is not sinful for missing them.

For example, Abida’s menstruation ends at ten complete days (240 hours) at 5:55 am in Ramadan. Fajr enters at 6 am. Because the ghusl time is not added to the menstrual habit, when Fajr enters, Abida is free from menstruation and her intention to fast counts. Thus, Abida intends to fast, takes a ghusl, makes up Isha and Witr prayer, prays Fajr, and her fast is valid for this day.

Scenario 2: The menstruating woman does not have enough time to say the opening takbir of the prayer before Fajr enters. Her menstruation ends when Fajr enters or afterwards.

If this is the case, her fast will not count for that day. Consequently, she must imitate a fasting person for that day due to the sacredness of the holy month and make up this fast after Ramadan is over in a time when she is able. She does not owe makeup for Isha or Witr prayer.

For example, Abida’s menstruation ends at ten complete days (240 hours) at 6:01 am in Ramadan. Fajr entered at 6 am. Abida is still within a state of menstruation when Fajr entered. Thus, her fast is not valid. She takes a ghusl, imitates a fasting person for that day until Maghrib enters, and makes up this fast after Ramadan is over in a time when she is able.

The same rulings apply to a woman in a state of lochia (post-natal bleeding).

Making The Intention

For current Ramadan fasts, the intention can be made at any time before the Islamic midday. Refer to this article to understand more about the Islamic midday and how to calculate it.

For more details about fasting and menstruation, please read these related articles:

Menstruation Rulings Related To Ramadan

Worship In Ramadan For A Menstruating Woman

How does a woman perform ‘itikaf?

The ABC’s Of How To Fast

To learn more about rulings related to menstruation, take our Courses.

Jazak Allah khayran

Naielah Ackbarali


References:

منهل الواردين من بحار الفيض على ذخر المتأهلين في مسائل الحيض لابن عابدين – الفصل الثالث

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