List Of Prohibitions

Bismi Llahir Rahmanir Rahim

by Naielah Ackbarali

The Prophet ﷺ said: “What I have forbidden for you, avoid. What I have ordered you (to do), do as much of it as you can. For verily, it was only the excessive questioning and their disagreeing with their Prophets that destroyed (the nations) who were before you.” [Bukhari & Muslim]

From this narration, we realize that it is incumbent upon every Muslim to know what they are obliged to avoid and what they are obliged to do for the sake of Allah Most High.

The following is a list of prohibitions that is largely based on a section from Imam ‘Ala al-Din Abidin’s work “al-Hadiya al-‘Alaiyya.” Some prohibitions have been inserted from other sources and are indicated by the phrase (added).

In an effort to make comprehending this section easy for the reader, it has been rearranged into a list and grouped with relevant subject headings.

To conclude, it is important to know that if a Muslim engages in any of these prohibitions, they are sinful and must seek Allah Most High’s forgiveness before dying – although it is best to repent from any sin immediately.

Repentance entails three conditions:

1) To feel remorse for what one has done.

2) To immediately refrain from the act.

3) To be resolute in not committing it again.

If the sin involves the rights of another, then there is a fourth condition, which is that one must carry out that right. This means one must return any unlawfully seized item, give those wronged their due rights, or seek pardon from them. If it involves debts owed to Allah – like makeup prayers, unpaid zakat and the like – one must fulfill them.

BELIEF ISSUES

  • Holding false beliefs that are contrary to those of ahl al-sunna wa al-jamāʿa
  • Weakness in faith regarding one’s belief in Allah Most High, one of the prophets, or the message that the Prophets came with (may peace be upon them)
  • Ingratitude for the blessing of Islam
  • Despairing and losing hope in Allah’s mercy by becoming overwhelmed with one’s sins and deeming forgiveness to be remote
  • Denying Allah’s divine decree and destiny
  • Feeling safe from Allah planning a bad ending for one
  • Believing fortune-tellers and astrologers
  • Reviling any of the Companions (Allah be pleased with them all)
  • Preferring the Companion Ali ibn Abi Talib (Allah be pleased with him) over the Companions Abu Bakr al-Sadiq and Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah be pleased with them both)
  • Slaughtering an animal in the name of a person/created thing and not for the sake of Allah Most High
  • Believing that something portends bad luck (added)

CHEATING & DECEPTION

  • Bribery
  • Cheating when selling goods by under-measuring or under-weighing them
  • Assuming a position of a judge – or asking for it – while knowing oneself to be dishonest, unjust, or the like
  • Declaring the righteousness of another and his sainthood without knowing about him or having heard anything about him from someone reliable
  • Wearing the attire of the righteous in public while committing unlawful acts, even if only lesser ones, when alone
  • Unjustly dividing or appraising wealth
  • Treachery (added)

CONSUMING UNLAWFUL SUBSTANCES

  • Drinking wine or alcohol – even if it is a small amount and does not cause intoxication
  • Consuming an intoxicating substance – such as drugs, marijuana, and the like
  • Consuming carrion or pig without being in a situation of dire necessity

DISOBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY FIGURES

  • Disrespecting one’s parents
  • Betraying, disobeying, and rebelling against the Muslim state ruler
  • Refusing to help the state ruler, or whoever is in a position of authoritative leadership, in carrying out what is right
  • Escaping the state ruler’s call to arms
  • Fleeing from combat during an ongoing battle
  • Unjustly refusing to have relations with one’s spouse
  • Fleeing from and avoiding scholars of the religion
  • Finding fault in Muslim scholars

ENGAGING IN SIN & INNOVATIONS

  • Disobeying Allah Most High in any of His prohibitions
  • Making light of one’s sins, even if they be minor, and to persist in them (because all sins should be looked down upon)
  • Becoming habituated to committing minor sins and persisting in them (if one persists in a minor sin, it transforms into a major sin)
  • Assisting in sin and verbally encouraging it
  • Spreading sin by use of wealth and religion
  • Inaugurating a reprehensible innovation
  • Sitting with the corrupt and sinful, unless done to command the good and forbid the evil
  • Pleasing another with what Allah Most High detests
  • Publicly exposing one’s nakedness
  • Engaging in sorcery (added)
  • Men wearing gold or silk (added)
  • Using gold or silver utensils (added)

HARMING OTHERS

  • Unjustly oppressing and harming others by deed or word
  • Burning an animal with fire in vain (added: branding their face or harming an animal in any way)
  • Unlawful transgression and oppression against non-Muslims living in Muslim lands
  • Ignorantly or unjustly giving legal judgment
  • Pointing a blade at someone to threaten them
  • Severing ties of kinship (added)
  • Reminding people of the blessings you gave them (added)

KILLING

  • Intentionally killing another human being without a right
  • Suicide or destroying one’s own limbs, which is a greater enormity than the sin of killing another

LEAVING OBLIGATORY WORSHIP

  • Not performing the obligatory prayer
  • Not giving zakat without a valid excuse
  • Not fasting the current Ramadan without a valid excuse
  • Praying the obligatory prayer before its stipulated time
  • Delaying the obligatory prayer beyond its stipulated time, except at ʿArafa and Muzdelifa on hajj
  • Purposely breaking one’s fast in Ramadan without a lawful excuse
  • Dying without having performed hajj and there was no valid excuse to delay it
  • Leaving the obligation to command the good and forbid the wrong for the one who possesses the ability to carry it out
  • Forgetting the Qur’an, such that one is no longer able to recite from the mushaf
  • Not ensuring that the male organ is free of urine after urinating so that one’s wudu remains valid for one’s prayers
  • For a scholar to not practice the religious knowledge that he knows
  • Not learning the religious knowledge that is obligatory upon one to learn (‘ilm al-hal)
  • Concealing sacred knowledge (added)
  • Not repenting from a sin

LYING

  • Intentionally lying about the Prophet ﷺ, like narrating false hadith
  • Accusing a chaste, adult, Muslim man or woman of adultery
  • Giving false testimony
  • Falsely claiming sainthood
  • Consistently lying (added)
  • Falsely claiming someone to be one’s father (added)

ODIOUS SPEECH

  • Calling to misguidance
  • Attacking someone’s lineage
  • Likening one’s wife to the back of one’s mother or female mahram (zihar)
  • Argumentation (to put down or harm another)
  • Picking apart another’s words
  • Calling another Muslim by the phrase “O’ disbeliever” (If one believes that the person is a disbeliever when the person is not, this is kufr)
  • Talebearing (added)
  • Cursing others (added)

PROHIBITED SEXUAL ACTS

  • Fornication (added: and whatever actions would lead to it)
  • Homosexuality
  • Lesbianism
  • Pimping
  • For a husband to allow his wife to have sexual intercourse with another man
  • Intercourse with animals (bestiality)
  • Anal sex with one’s wife (added)
  • Sex during menstruation (added)

RIBA (INTEREST) & UNLAWFUL GAIN

  • Consuming usury (riba)
  • Consuming the wealth or property of orphans wrongfully
  • Gambling
  • Spending money on the unlawful

SINS OF THE HEART

  • Arrogance towards others
  • Contempt for another
  • Happiness at the rise of prices on Muslims
  • Pride for being knowledgeable
  • Believing oneself to be knowledgeable while one is in fact ignorant
  • Showing off in good works (added)
  • Learning sacred knowledge for the sake of this world (added)

SPYING

  • Spying on others
  • Trying to overhear the conversation of others

STEALING

  • Highway banditry
  • Theft
  • Usurping property

UNJUST RULERS

  • For the ruler to renounce what is right

WASTING TIME & DENYING BLESSINGS

  • Using one’s nine limbs – the tongue, two hands, two feet, two eyes, and two ears – for sin
  • Being ungrateful to a person who does one a kindness
  • Playing backgammon and any game that is sinful to engage in according to scholarly consensus

References:

  • Imam Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-Alaiyya
  • Imam Dhahabi, Kitab al-Kaba’ir

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