Glossary of Terms

Below are common terms used throughout the lessons.

Ka’ba & Mosque Area

Black Stone: a stone from Paradise placed in the Ka’ba’s eastern corner

Black Stone Corner: located at the eastern corner of the Ka’ba

Haram (sacred precinct): refers to the sacred areas of Makkah, Mina, and Muzdelifa or refers to al-Masjid al-Haram itself

Hijr Ismail (Hateem): semi-circle between the Iraqi and Syrian corners of the Ka’ba

Iraqi Corner: located at the northern corner of the Ka’ba

Maqam Ibrahim: a glass enclosure with an imprint of Prophet Ibrahim’s feet (peace be upon him) in a stone

Mas’aa: walkway between the hillocks of Safa and Marwa

Mataf: ground floor area for making tawaf

Mizab ar-Rahma: Ka’ba waterspout, located in the area of the Hijr Isma’il

Mosque Gates: main entrances to the mosque

Multazam: area between the Black Stone and Ka’ba door where the Prophet ﷺ hung onto

Safa & Marwa: two hillocks in which pilgrims walk between during the sa’y

Syrian (Shami) Corner: located at the western corner of the Ka’ba

Yemeni Corner: located at the southern corner of the Ka’ba

Zamzam Well: a miraculously generated source of water, which sprang thousands of years ago when Prophet Isma’il (peace be upon him) was left with his mother Sayyidatuna Hājar (Allah be pleased with her) in the desert

Sacred Law Rulings Related to Umrah

Condition (Shart): it must be fulfilled and the validity of the action is dependent upon it

Fard (Obligatory): the action must be done, it is sinful to leave, and the validity of the action is dependent upon it

Wajib (Mandatory): the action must be done and it is sinful to leave

Emphasized Sunna (as-Sunna al-Mu’akkada): an action habitually performed by the Prophet ﷺ – one is rewarded for doing it and it is blameworthy to leave without an excuse

Recommended (Mustahabb): an action that was occasionally done by the Prophet ﷺ – one is rewarded for doing it but there is no sin/blame for leaving it

Permissible (Mubah): an action in which there is no reward for doing it and no sin for leaving it

Prohibitively Disliked (Makruh Tahrimi): an action in which one is firmly commanded to leave and doing it is sinful

Slightly Disliked (Makruh Tanzihi): an action in which one is lightly commanded to leave but doing it entails no sin, although one is rewarded for leaving it

Forbidden (Haram): the action must be avoided and it is sinful to do

Umrah Rites

Designated Boundaries (Miqat): specified locations where one must enter into a state of ihram before surpassing them (refer to Lesson 3a)

Ihram: the non-tangible state of pilgrim sanctity (refer to Lesson 3a)

Talbiya: pilgrim chant (refer to Lesson 3a)

Tawaf: circumambulating around the Ka’ba seven times, starting at the Black Stone and ending with it (refer to Lesson 4b)

Sa’y: walking between the hillocks of Safa and Marwa seven times, starting at Safa and ending at Marwa (refer to Lesson 5a)

Halq/Taqsir: shaving or trimming the hair on the head (refer to Lesson 5b)

Violations & Penalties

There are three types of violations:

  • Ihram Violation: an infringement of the ihram’s sacred state thus requiring a penalty (refer to Lesson 3b)
  • Tawaf Violation: a contravention that is related to the validity/soundness of the tawaf rite thus requiring a pilgrim to repeat the tawaf or owe a penalty (refer to Lesson 4b)
  • Sa’y Violation: a contravention that is related to the validity/soundness of the sa’y rite thus requiring a pilgrim to owe a penalty (refer to Lesson 5a)

There are two types of monetary penalties:

  • Charity (Sadaqa): donating a specified amount by the Sacred Law as a penalty for a violation committed (refer to Lesson 3b)
  • Slaughtering (Dam): slaughtering a sheep within the haram boundaries as a penalty for a violation committed (refer to Lesson 3b)